The official, definitive guide to the greatest orchestrators of all time

At long last- the research has been completed, the results have been tallied. We can now say with absolute, factual certainty who the 15 greatest orchestrators of all time are. Check out the results, then let us know which ones you got wrong…. Er, we mean, let us know who you think should be on the list.

Scoring was on the basis of-

1- How good they were: does their work sound great?

2- How original they were: does their work sound unique?

3- How idiomatic/professional they were: does their work work as they wrote it?

Stay tuned for next time, when we look at the most problematic orchestrators ever chose between 2nd oboe or 2nd clarinet.

15. Lutoslawski

A giant, whose musical achievements look bigger and more impressive as the years go by. His Concerto for Orchestra is every bit as great as Bartók’s, and his symphonies are simply amazing works, full of color and originality.

14. Mozart

Mozart’s music, is of course, some of the most beautiful ever written. As an orchestrator, he leaves an awful lot of the welfare of the music in the hands of the musicians. It simply has to be well-played to work at all- the orchestration covers no problems and really makes very few effects. On the other hand, there are wonderful diversions and surprises in his orchestral choices- the divided violas in the Sinfonia Concertante, the use of clarinets instead of oboes in the 39th Symphony or the dark sound of basset horns and trombones in the Requiem. His most strikingly original orchestral work is the Gran Partita,  a work with only one player (the double bass) there to represent for the strings.

13. Bruckner

Perhaps no composer better understood the poetic power of orchestral sonority than Bruckner. Often compared to Wagner and Mahler, his sound-world is more austere and restrained, and the music is all the more powerful for it. For me as a listener and conductor, he’s in the top four all-time orchestrators. I’ve bumped him back in this listing out of deference to all those string players who wish they’d learned how to play tremolo without tension before they encountered his music.


12. Brahms

Some may be surprised to see Brahms on this list- he’s not a composer known for his attention-grabbing orchestration. Of course, that’s exactly how Brahms would have wanted it: a composer of such exactly honesty and discipline could only have wanted an orchestral world where every detail was completely in service of the musical narrative. The magnitude of his achievement and the skill of his work can be best appreciated by sampling Schoenberg’s well-meaning but desperately incompetent and misguided orchestration of Brahms’s G minor Piano Quartet


11. Mendelssohn

Mendelssohn is one of the many composers on this list who was also an expert conductor of vast experience, and it shows on every page of his music. If less ambitious than Berlioz or Schumann, he was far more polished. Everything works, everything fits under the hand.


10. Schumann

Yes, his music is harder to play than Mendelssohn’s or Brahms. If one strays too far from his original number of players and stage setup, it can be hard to make the balances and textures work, but he was far more original, daring and inspired than either of his masterful friends. His brass writing is particularly original- check out the trombone chorale in the Third Symphony or the mind-blowing horn writing in the Konzertstucke.


9. Shostakovich

Shostakovich had the wisdom to recognize early on that Mahler and Strauss had taken orchestral micro-managerialism as far as it could go. There are more expressive markings in the first ten pages of Mahler 7 than in the entire 15 Shostakovich symphonies combined (disclaimer- this statement is probably not actually factually true, but you get my point). Shostakovich’s orchestral palette is incredibly wide-ranging. He can do stark, he can do contrapuntally insane, he can do Russian lyricism. No composer before or since could do so much with contrabassoon and piccolo. And yet, as diverse as the language is, the voice is always instantly recognizable.


8. Wagner

Wagner changed everything, especially the sound of the orchestra. From the opening of Rienzi through the final pages of Parsifal, Wagner’s orchestra has a grandeur, a power and a breadth of colour the likes of which had never been seen before. His influence is immeasurable.


7. Bartók

If one were to be so curmudgeonly as to try to find fault with Bartók as an orchestrator, the only fault to find might be in the fact that one can hear the influence of Stravinsky and Debussy in so much of his work. Still, if you’re going to steal, steal from the best.


6. Stravinsky

Stravinsky was the Miles Davis of classical music. Over a long career, he managed to reinvent himself over and over again, and, like Miles, he seemed to almost welcome the despairing cries of his fans every time he left a beloved style behind. He could have written Firebird another 50 times and been the richest composer who ever lived. Instead, he went on a sixty year journey of constant renewal, from the primal fury of Rite of Spring ,to the acidic modernist tang of the Octet for Winds and Symphonies of Wind Instruments, to the neo-Classical delights of Dumbarton Oaks and Danses Concertantes, to the severity of Oedipus Rex, and then on to the atonal abstractions of Agon. And through it all, the listener needs only one of those trademarked tutti staccato chords to know you’re still listening to Miles Davis….. er, I mean Stravinsky. He would rank even higher on this list but for his tendency to revise and fuss- like Mahler, he could never leave his orchestrations alone (profit was a big reason in Stravinsky’s case)


5. Ravel

The name “Ravel” has practically come to mean “great orchestrator.” He was a great, great, great composer, too, but with the rare gift of inhabiting the sound world of other composers. Of all the composers who were drawn into orchestrating or re-orchestrating the music of Mussorgsky, I think Ravel strikes possibly the most judicious balance between keeping the best of Mussorgsky’s original ideas and making the music shine for the listener. Has there every been anything lovelier than the Minuet from Tombeau de Couperin or the end of Mother Goose?

4. Mahler

Of course, Mahler has to be high on this list. The originality of his orchestral writing is just amazing- and really worlds away from the blocks of sonority favoured by Bruckner and Wagner. It’s chamber music on a vast scale. Possibly the greatest conductor who ever lived, his orchestral writing is informed by a huge depth of practical experience, not least conducting his own works, which he revised again and again whenever he performed them, always seeking to get closer to his musical ideal.


3. Elgar

Elgar shares a gift also held by Shostakovich and Bruckner- that of having an instantly-recognizable orchestral fingerprint. His orchestrations of other composers’ works sound more like Elgar than Parry, Bach or the like. A pragmatic professional musician, his orchestration is generally also more fluid and idiomatic than even his great Austro-Bohemian near-contemporary, Gustav Mahler.


2.  J. S. Bach

The fact that Bach places at no. 2 on the list of history’s greatest and most imaginative orchestrators is all the more impressive considering the fact that in Bach’s time, orchestration really wasn’t much of a “thing.” Bach’s orchestral Klagnwelt is amazingly wide ranging: from the sparking trumpet-and-drum brilliance of the Christmas Oratorio to the austere and direct atmosphere of the Saint John Passion and the poly-choral and poly-orchestral complexities of the Saint Matthew.


1. Richard Strauss

When it comes to orchestration, Strauss is in a league completely and totally of his own. It’s no accident that so many of the composers on this list (Mahler, Wagner, Bruckner and Elgar) share a certain late-Romantic sensibility. Their music emerges from a time in which the orchestra really was the symbol of civilization and art. However you rank all the figures on this list as composers, as a master of the orchestra, Richard Strauss really has no competition. Where Mahler, Bruckner and Stravinsky seemed to be unable to quite put their musical ideas into a final form, Strauss wrote with supreme confidence and seemed to never need to revise. No composer before or since seems to have been able to put so much on the page at once and have it all make sense. Others who have tried, such as Schoenberg around the time of Pelleas and Melisande and Gurrelider, have come to grief- the balances are almost impossible to get right. Think of the range of his orchestral universe, too- from Heldenleben to Metamorphosen, from the Oboe Concerto to Elektra, from Till Eulenspiegel to Aiadne auf Naxos.






1. There is a sequel to this post here. It’s a (mostly) affectionate look at orchestral music’s problem children.

2. Some very good suggestions have come up in the comments, notably

Tchaikovsky. Yes! Totally deserves to be high on this list. An absolute genius of an orchestrator who never seemed to put a foot wrong.

– Sibelius. Yes, also. Brahmsian in it’s unobtrusive perfection and the absence of pointless effect

– Nielsen. Many amazing things in his music, but it can be damnably hard and there are many things that are baffling. If and where you put him on this list depends on what you think the balance between the bold and the baffling is.


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About the author

American conductor, composer and cellist Kenneth Woods is Principal Conductor of the English Symphony Orchestra, Artistic Director of the Colorado MahlerFest and cellist of the string trio Ensemble Epomeo. He records for the Avie, Somm, Nimbus, Signum, MSR and Toccata labels.

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13 comments on “The official, definitive guide to the greatest orchestrators of all time”

  1. Brian Hughes

    Ballsy choice in selecting Schumann although I heartily agree: it’s all about playing with a “Schumann-sized” ensemble, not the contemporary behemoths, that makes the music work. Now that we’ve agreed, Ken, what about Rimsky-Korsakov?

  2. Ray Kohn

    Intriguing: Debussey? Berg was a better orchestrator than his teacher, Schoenberg. Tchaikovsky, Rimsky Korsakov and Dvorak could replace some of those chosen? Sibelius and Nielsen seem to have been overlooked in this Austro-heavy list. But if you must look at that tradition without Beethoven as a symphonist, then surely something is wrong?

  3. Matt

    As I put hand to keyboard I noticed that the above commenter, Mr. Kohn, literally took the words out of my mouth: Dvorak, Sibelius, and Nielsen all deserve to be on this list.

  4. Elrond

    The omissions I wanted to argue have already been named in the first 3 comments! So what’s left for me…? I guess I can elaborate.
    The name that instantly comes to mind for “great orchestrator,” after Ravel, is Rimsky-Korsakoff. After all, Stravinsky gave R-K tremendous credit for teaching him how to orchestrate a piece.
    Besides R-K, the most startling omission is Debussy. La Mer? Nocturnes?
    Yesterday I was listening to Sibelius’s 3rd Symphony in the car. The second movement’s orchestration is absolutely heavenly.
    I would put Beethoven on the list for his use of timpani alone.
    Finally, Puccini should be added. You just need a longer list!

  5. Aleks

    I think you forgot Magnus Lindberg. From his chamber works to big works like Kraft his Orchestration is amazing!

  6. Kile

    As soon as I saw Brahms there, I knew we were in good hands. Excellent job! But some late returns are coming in from the provinces, and R-K is rising…

  7. Matthew

    Good list. What about Berlioz, Prokofiev, or Rimsky-Korsakov?

  8. Rees

    I like the list, but no Berlioz? The crackpot, who, by his friendships with Sax and Arban championed new instruments and then expanded the orchestra? Whose treaties on orchestration was then used as “THE guidebook” until Richard Strauss used it as the basis for his treaties on orchestration? Blue touch paper lit, retreat twenty paces, Rees…

  9. Andrew

    Your list is good, but far from ‘definitive’ there are some composers who should be here but are noticibly absent. Your placement of Ricard Strauss (whos music I love dearly) is misplaced. Ravel should certainly top this list as Daphnis and Chloe can arguably be considered the greatest orchestrated piece in history. Some notable orchestration masters you left off your list include:

    Franz Schreker
    Sir Arnold Bax
    Lili Boulanger
    Eric Coates
    Sergei Rachmaninoff
    Jean Sibelius
    Antonin Dvorak
    John Williams
    Giacomo Puccini
    Karol Syzmanowsky
    William Walton
    Ralph Vaughn Williams

    If the Nazis didn’t ban the music of Schreker he might have widely become know as the greatest orchestrator of all time, in my opinion.

  10. Caleb King

    With all due respect, in my not so humble opinion, the greatest orchestrator—from the standpoint of technical virtuosity, tastefulness, variety, basically from any given respect apart from signature novelty—without contest is…Paul Dukas.

    Behold the Symphony in C. A lovely symphony in all respects, but orchestrationally sine qua non. If one makes a study of all the principal devices and textures we associate with the 19th Century, Dukas masters them all and then some.

    Dukas is a paragon of color, texture, grouping, transition, contrast, theme v. ground distinction and experted control of their mutability, tonal and timbral modulation, chromatic pivots, distance and density effects, expressive dynamics, motivic variation—in short, the gamut of orchestrational challenges.

    Like Saint Saen, his symphonic work is underappreciated, but his orchestrational facility is awe inspiring.

    Also: a worthy 20th and 21st century master orchestrator is Hans Werner Henze. The instrumentation and chamber scoring of George Crumb is also formidable.

  11. Caleb King

    Edit to my previous comment:

    I mistakenly listed Henze as model contemporary orchestrator, but intended to name Magnus Lindberg.

  12. roger

    l disagree with the content and having a league type table – agree with strauss – but surely ravel should share equal first place if we must have these league tables.agree with some comments – for example tchaikovsky deserves to be there’ bartok should not be there and for me composers like shumann, bach, medelsson are not in the top league of orchestrators either

  13. Daniel T. Yenzer

    Hello Mr. Woods.
    My name is Daniel T. Yenzer. I am hoping that you have some moments to spare because I have some questions that perhaps you are especially capable of addressing. First let me say that I am a big fan of classical music. One question that is related to the above topic is: Where would you rate Franz Liszt as an orchestrator? I adore his orchestration from a listeners viewpoint, but I would like your opinion as a conductor. Also, how do the members of an orchestra feel about playing his music?
    Just to give you some idea of my tastes in what I enjoy hearing, here is a partial list in no particular order.
    Mozart – Grand partita, Piano concerto no, 27, Symphony no. 40
    Tchaikovsky – Symphony no 4 and 6, Nutcracker, Swan Lake, Romeo and Juilet fantasy/overture, Serenade for strings
    Liszt – Faust and Dante symphonies, Christus and St. Elizabeth, Orpheus and Hunnenschlacht, Piano concerto no. 2
    Debussy – Prelude to afternoon of a faune
    Smetana- Moldau
    Ravel – Daphnis and Chloe, Pavane for a dead princess,
    Holst – The Planets
    Rimsky-Korsakov – Scherazade, Dance of the Nobles
    Mendelsohn – Symphonies, Overture to a midsummer’s dream, Violin concerto
    Schubert – Symphonies
    Well I am sure that is enough.
    Any comments would be appreciated.
    Daniel T. Yenzer

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